Lean Results PRO - FAQ

Our Lean Results PRO course covers a range of topics from explaining why you should implement lean and it's benefits, how to successfully and practically implement lean and how to measure the results of a successful lean implementation. This page outlines some of the topics covered in the Lean Results PRO course to give you a more detailed understanding of how implementing lean can benefit your team or business.

What is a lean culture?

Lean culture refers to a set of values, principles, and practices within an organization that align with the principles of lean thinking. At its core, lean culture is a mindset and approach that emphasizes continuous improvement, waste reduction, and employee empowerment. Originating from the lean manufacturing philosophy pioneered by Toyota, lean culture has expanded beyond its manufacturing roots and is now applied across various industries and sectors.

Key characteristics of a lean culture include:

Continuous Improvement

A commitment to ongoing enhancement of processes, products, and services. Employees are encouraged to identify inefficiencies and actively participate in finding solutions for improvement. Continuous improvement training is included in the Lean Results PRO course.

Waste Elimination

The relentless pursuit of eliminating waste in all its forms, including time, materials, and resources. This involves scrutinizing every aspect of the workflow to identify and eliminate non-value-added activities.

Respect for People

A fundamental principle of lean culture is the respect for every individual within the organization. This involves recognizing the unique skills, perspectives, and contributions of each employee.


Employees are empowered to make decisions and take ownership of their work. This empowerment fosters a sense of responsibility and engagement, contributing to the overall success of the organization.

Customer Focus

Prioritizing customer needs and delivering value are central tenets of lean culture. Organizations strive to understand customer requirements and align their processes to meet or exceed those expectations.

Visual Management

Using visual cues and tools to make information about processes, performance, and goals readily available. This helps in creating transparency and facilitating better communication within the organization.

Teamwork and Collaboration

Lean culture promotes a collaborative environment where cross-functional teams work together to achieve common goals. Collaboration is essential for addressing complex challenges and driving continuous improvement.


Establishing standardized work processes and procedures to ensure consistency and efficiency. Standardization provides a baseline for improvement efforts and helps in sustaining positive changes over time.

Advantages of lean manufacturing with lean culture

Lean manufacturing is a systematic approach to improving process efficiency by eliminating waste. Lean culture is a set of values and principles that support lean manufacturing by empowering employees to identify and eliminate waste, and to continuously improve processes.

The advantages of lean manufacturing with lean culture include:

Reduced waste

Lean culture encourages employees to identify and eliminate waste from all aspects of the manufacturing process (DOWNTIME): defects, over production, waiting, utilised talent, transportation, inventory, motion and extra processing.

Improved quality

Lean culture emphasizes the importance of quality in all aspects of the manufacturing process. By identifying and addressing the root causes of defects, businesses can improve the quality of their products.

Increased productivity

By eliminating waste and streamlining processes (information, material and product flows), lean culture can help businesses to produce more products within the customer requirements with fewer resources.

Reduced costs

Lean culture can help businesses to reduce costs by reducing waste, improving efficiency, and increasing productivity.

Improved customer satisfaction

By delivering high-quality products on time and at a competitive price, lean culture can help businesses to improve customer satisfaction.

In addition to these advantages, lean culture can also lead to improved employee morale, increased safety, and a more sustainable business.


A manufacturing company with a lean culture might implement a "5S system" to organize, clean and standardize their workspaces. This would help to reduce waste and improve efficiency by eliminating unnecessary movement and clutter. The company might also implement a "just-in-time" (JIT) inventory system to reduce waste and costs by only producing what is needed, when it is needed.

Overall, lean manufacturing with lean culture can help businesses to improve their bottom line and become more competitive.

What is Kaizen?

Kaizen, which translates to "continuous improvement" in Japanese, is a Lean concept that emphasizes small, gradual improvements to processes.

By promoting staff engagement, ongoing education, data-driven decision-making, and group cooperation, Kaizen cultivates a culture of creativity and flexibility. With this strategy, companies are certain to positively change throughout time, tackling obstacles and grasping possibilities.

Through the promotion of a continuous improvement mindset, Kaizen enables teams to implement small, regular changes that, when added together, result in enhanced productivity, competitiveness, and long-term success.

What are Lean tools?

Lean tools are a broad category of approaches and procedures intended to find and remove waste, simplify operations, and promote ongoing development in businesses. They enable teams to systematically assess, optimize, and standardize workflows, which is crucial in accomplishing Lean objectives.

Examples of Lean tools include Value Stream Mapping, which visualizes the end-to-end flow of materials and information; 5S methodology, focusing on workplace organization and cleanliness; Kaizen events, facilitating rapid improvement initiatives; Just-in-Time (JIT) production, ensuring materials are delivered precisely when needed; Visual Management techniques, providing clear, visual cues to monitor and optimize processes; and Kanban systems, enabling efficient inventory
management, among others.

Organizations may optimize processes, increase quality, and cultivate a continuous improvement culture by correctly using Lean techniques.

What is Kanban?

Kanban is a workflow management methodology that originated in Japan. It emphasizes visualizing work on a board, typically with columns representing different stages. Tasks, represented as cards, move through these stages. WIP limits are set for each stage to prevent overloading and maintain a smooth flow.

The approach follows a pull system, where work is pulled into the system based on capacity and customer demand. Continuous improvement is a key aspect, with regular feedback loops and the application of the Kaizen philosophy for incremental enhancements.

Kanban is adaptable, accommodating changes in priorities or requirements. It encourages collaboration within teams and transparent communication. Metrics such as lead time, cycle time, and throughput are used to measure and optimize performance.

Roles are not strictly prescribed, allowing flexibility in team structures, and shared responsibility is encouraged. Kanban principles include starting with existing processes, pursuing incremental changes, and respecting current roles and responsibilities. Overall, Kanban is widely applied in various domains to optimize processes and enhance productivity.

The Lean Results PRO course includes Kanban Training among many other topics.

What is 5S?

5S is a workplace organization methodology that originated in Japan. It comprises five principles aimed at improving efficiency, safety, and overall organization. The 5S framework includes:

Sort (Seiri)

- Focuses on eliminating unnecessary items from the workplace.

- Separates essential tools and materials from those that are unnecessary.

Set in Order (Seiton)

- Organizes and arranges necessary items in a logical and accessible manner.

- Reduces time wasted searching for tools or materials.

Shine (Seiso)

- Involves cleaning and maintaining a clean workspace.

- Identifies and addresses the root causes of dirt, dust, and clutter.

Standardize (Seiketsu)

- Establishes consistent work practices and procedures.

- Ensures that the first three S's become routine and are sustained over time.

Sustain (Shitsuke)

- Encourages the continuation and improvement of 5S practices.

- Involves training, regular audits, and fostering a culture of continuous improvement.

5S is widely applied in manufacturing, service industries, and various workplaces to enhance organization, safety, and productivity. You can access 5S training in the Lean Results PRO course.

What is SMED?

SMED, or Single-Minute Exchange of Die, is a methodology focused on minimizing the time it takes to change over a manufacturing process from producing one product to another. The goal is to reduce setup or changeover time to a single-digit number of minutes, ideally within the range of one to ten minutes. SMED aims to increase operational efficiency, flexibility, and responsiveness in manufacturing by:

Internal and External Setup

Distinguishing between internal (tasks that can only be done when production is stopped) and external (tasks that can be done while the last batch is still running) setup activities.

Converting Internal to External Setup

Moving as many tasks as possible from internal to external setup to minimize downtime.


Standardizing setup procedures to make them more efficient and repeatable.


Performing setup tasks in parallel rather than sequentially to save time.

Elimination of Adjustments

Designing equipment and processes to reduce the need for adjustments during setup.

By implementing SMED principles, organizations can achieve quicker changeovers, reduce production batch sizes, and improve overall production flexibility, allowing for more efficient and responsive manufacturing operations.

Learn about SMED with the Lean Results PRO course.

What are SQDC Boards?

An SQDC board, representing Safety (S), Quality (Q), Delivery (D), and Cost (C), is a visual management tool used in manufacturing and operations. Comprising four columns, each dedicated to a specific element, the board serves as a centralized platform for teams to track and communicate key performance indicators related to safety, product quality, delivery schedules, and cost management.

By utilizing an SQDC board, organizations can enhance communication, streamline decision-making processes, and cultivate a culture of continuous improvement. This visual tool empowers teams to quickly identify and address issues related to safety incidents, product quality deviations, delivery challenges, and cost fluctuations, facilitating a more agile and responsive operational environment.

What are work instructions?

Work instructions are detailed step-by-step guides that provide clear directions on how to perform a specific task or job within an organization. These documents are crucial in various industries to ensure consistency, quality, and safety in the execution of work processes. Work instructions typically include information such as materials needed, tools required, sequential steps to follow, safety precautions, and any relevant quality standards.

For instance, in a manufacturing setting, work instructions for assembling a product may outline each assembly step, specify the torque values for tightening screws, and emphasize safety measures to be taken during the process. These instructions serve as a valuable resource for employees, enabling them to carry out their responsibilities accurately and efficiently, ultimately contributing to the overall effectiveness and standardization of operational procedures.

What is pareto analysis?

Pareto analysis, also known as the 80/20 rule or the Pareto principle, is a decision-making technique that suggests a large majority of problems (80%) are caused by a small number of root causes (20%). This principle is named after the Italian economist Vilfredo Pareto, who observed that 80% of the land in Italy was owned by 20% of the population. In the context of problem-solving or process improvement, Pareto analysis is used to identify and prioritize the most significant factors contributing to a problem or a set of issues.

To conduct a Pareto analysis, data is collected on the various factors influencing a problem. This could be defects in a manufacturing process, customer complaints, or any other relevant metric. The factors are then ranked in descending order based on their contribution to the overall problem. The analysis helps to focus resources on addressing the most critical issues first, optimizing efforts for maximum impact. For example, in a business context, a company might use Pareto analysis to determine which product defects are causing the majority of customer complaints, allowing them to prioritize quality improvement efforts on the most crucial aspects of their products.

Learn to conduct a pareto analysis with the Lean Results PRO course.

What is a spaghetti diagram?

A spaghetti diagram is a visual representation of the flow of people, materials, or information within a process or system. It gets its name because the lines that represent the flow often resemble a tangled mass of spaghetti, illustrating the complexity and inefficiencies in the workflow. This diagram is particularly useful in identifying and analyzing the physical movement and paths taken by individuals or objects in a given space.

To create a spaghetti diagram, one typically observes and documents the actual paths taken by people or materials as they move through a process. This is often done by physically following individuals or items and marking their routes on a map or floor plan. The result is a visual representation that clearly shows the movement patterns, crossovers, and potential bottlenecks in the process.

The primary purpose of a spaghetti diagram is to identify opportunities for improvement in efficiency and layout. By visualizing the current state of a process, organizations can pinpoint areas where unnecessary movement, delays, or congestion occur. This information is valuable for making informed decisions about process redesign or reorganization to optimize workflow and reduce waste. Spaghetti diagrams are commonly used in lean manufacturing and process improvement methodologies.

What is Andon?

Andon is a popular visual control tool for indicating issues or anomalies in the production process.

The word for a traditional paper lantern in Japanese is where the term "Andon" originates. Typically, an Andon system consists of a visual indicator, often a colored light or signal, and an accompanying alarm or alert.

Employees have the power to turn on the Andon system when they spot an issue or come across a flaw in the manufacturing process. This action tells team members and supervisors right away that there is a problem that needs to be fixed.

Teams can save waste and ensure product quality by preventing errors from moving farther down the production line by swiftly addressing issues that the Andon system flags.

What is the Pull System in Lean?

A key idea in the Lean approach is the Pull System, which centers on the idea of manufacturing products or providing services in response to real customer demand. In contrast to conventional push systems, which produce goods in advance of anticipated demand, the Pull System works by starting work only when necessary, usually in response to signals from end users or downstream operations.

Pull systems base their work on consumer demand instead of production timetables. This demand starts the movement of materials and resources through the value stream when it indicates the need to fill orders or replace inventory. Production processes are therefore in line with client demands, guaranteeing that products are manufactured only when there is a legitimate market for them.

The Pull System's central idea is the Kanban concept, which acts as a visual signaling method to manage the work flow. Based on actual demand, kanban cards or signals are used to approve the transfer of materials or the start of manufacturing activities.

What is The Gemba Walk?

The Gemba walk, rooted in the principles of Lean culture, is a powerful management practice that involves leaders going to the actual workplace.

In Japanese, “Gemba” literally means “actual place” and its primary purpose of a

Gemba walk is for leaders to observe, engage with employees, and gain firsthand

knowledge about the current state of operations.

During a Gemba walk, leaders are encouraged to ask questions, listen to frontline

workers, and assess the efficiency of processes. By physically being where the work happens, leaders can make informed decisions, build stronger connections with their teams, and instill a sense of shared responsibility for achieving organizational goals.

The Gemba walk aims for improvement by leaders understanding the actual conditionsof work on the ground.

What is Value Stream Mapping?

A key Lean management tool for visualizing the entire process of delivering a product or a servisse is Value Stream Mapping . VSM reveals the flow of materials, information, and activities through the use of visual representations, usually in the form of flowcharts. This allows for a thorough investigation of process efficiency. This approach finds non-value-added tasks and draws attention to areas that could want better.

By putting value stream mapping into practice, firms may cut lead times, get rid of waste, and improve overall operational performance. By giving teams a clear picture of the current situation and pointing them in the direction of an ideal future state that is in line with organizational objectives and customer value, this Lean tool promotes a culture of continuous development.

What is Heijunka?

Heijunka is a Lean manufacturing concept that aims to provide a constant and efficient production flow. It is also known as workload smoothing or production leveling. Heijunka aims to allocate output equally over a given period of time among various goods or services. This strategy prevents production bottlenecks and overstretching of certain resources while enabling firms to adapt more quickly to shifting consumer needs.

Organizations can reduce lead times, minimize inventory levels, and improve overall operational efficiency by employing Heijunka, which can result in a more stable and

predictable manufacturing environment.

What is Poka-Yoke?

Mistake-proofing or "poka-yoke" in Japanese, is a Lean technique that aims to stop mistakes and flaws in processes.

The main goal is to create systems or procedures that are naturally error-proof or, in the event that errors do occur, detect them before they become flaws.

Simple devices, visual clues, or process modifications that almost completely eliminate error are examples of Poka-Yoke approaches.

Organizations can decrease the need for expensive rework or adjustments, improve product quality, and eliminate faults by incorporating Poka-Yoke concepts.

What are Tier Boards?

Tier Boards are an integral component of Lean methodology, designed to facilitate efficient communication, collaboration, and visual management within an organization. Also known as "Visual Management Boards" or "Tiered Accountability Boards," they play a crucial role in aligning teams and tracking progress toward organizational goals.

Tier Boards, in the context of Lean, are usually a series of strategically arranged visual displays arranged at various levels of hierarchy within a company. Teams can remain focused on goals and make data-driven choices by using these boards, which provide a real-time overview of important performance metrics, project statuses, and targets.

The term "Tier" reflects the different levels of the organizational hierarchy, with each level having its dedicated board. This tiered structure helps in cascading information from top leadership to frontline teams, fostering a sense of accountability and ensuring that everyone is aligned with the overall organizational objectives.

What is Root Causa Analysis?

Root Cause Analysis (RCA) is a systematic problem-solving technique aimed at identifying the primary underlying factors that contribute to an issue or problem. In various industries, RCA is employed to understand the fundamental causes of problems rather than just addressing their symptoms. To find the underlying causes, a comprehensive investigation, data collection, and analysis process are required.

Organizations can create efficient corrective and preventive activities to get rid of or lessen the issue by identifying and treating the root causes. One of the most important tools for risk mitigation, process optimization, and quality control is root cause analysis. It promotes brainstorming, getting different perspectives from the same issue or possible solution.

What is the Obeya Room?

The Obeya Room, also known as just "Obeya," is a potent Lean methodology idea that came from the Toyota Production System. In Japanese, "Obeya" means "big room" or "war room." It functions as a specific area, either real or virtual, created to support visual management, communication, and teamwork within a business.

Within the framework of Lean methodologies, the Obeya Room serves as a focal point where multidisciplinary groups convene to exchange data, deliberate tactics, and reach well-informed conclusions. It is an area where pertinent data, KPIs, and project progress are clearly displayed to promote transparency and  problem-solving in real time.

Large visual boards, charts, graphs, and other visual aids that give a clear perspective of ongoing projects, objectives, and performance indicators are essential components of an Obeya Room. Teams may more rapidly identify problems, track their progress, and coordinate their efforts toward continuous improvement with the use of this visual management technique.

The Obeya Room can be customized for a variety of organizational environments and is not restricted to any one sector or purpose. Its goals are to improve communication, break down organizational silos, and advance an efficient and cooperative culture. Lean techniques that integrate the Obeya Room can greatly aid in workflow optimization, process simplification, and the development of a common understanding of organizational goals.

What is Mizusumashi?

Mizusumashi, a term derived from Japanese, translates to "water spider." Within the context of Lean methodology, Mizusumashi designates a key idea centered around logistics and material management. A Mizusumashi is a devoted worker that is frequently employed in manufacturing settings. Their job is to efficiently transport materials to the place of usage, guaranteeing a constant and uninterrupted flow of production. This idea minimizes waste related to inventory and transportation, which is in line with lean concepts.

The Mizusumashi is essential to lean manufacturing because it makes just-in-time production possible. This strategy helps get rid of surplus inventory, shorten lead times, and improve overall operational efficiency by supplying materials exactly when needed. Also avoids, in many real life cases, that the operators get out of their working station to search for material. This avoids down times and improves productivity.

What is an Ishikawa Diagram?

In lean problem-solving techniques, the Ishikawa Diagram, often called a Fishbone Diagram, is a crucial tool. Through collaborative problem-solving within the lean framework, teams may systematically discover and categorize the sources of specific difficulties thanks to this visual representation.

The graphic, which has a fishbone-like appearance, offers an organized and unambiguous method for comprehending contributing components. Organizations can utilize Ishikawa Diagrams to identify core problems and put effective remedies in place.

This tool is normally used to tackle issues where the possible solution might consist in a group of solutions applied in different categories - material, manpower, method, machine, measurement environment. To do so, it is necessary to define issues that can occur in each category, giving to each issue an occurrence probability level (very probable to happen, probable, not probable). After rating it, the issues that are very probable to happen gain priority in the root cause investigation.

What is Preventive Maintenance in Lean Culture?

In the context of lean procedures , while PM (Preventive Maintenance) is a typical group of tasks for the maintenance team, the other component, AM (Autonomous Maintenance), is composed by a group of tasks performed by the production team. Those are the CILT tasks (clean, inspect, lubricate and tighten). Together they are commonly called as AM/PM. By carefully carrying out planned and routine maintenance, companies prevent unplanned malfunctions, maximize productivity, and prolong the life of their equipment.

Preventive maintenance guarantees the smooth running of processes, effective use of resources, and maintenance of a high level of productivity within the lean culture, all of which are in line with the fundamentals of continuous improvement. Maintaining the resilience and dependability of systems depends on this proactive and planned approach to maintenance, which in turn promotes an operationally efficient and reliable culture.

What is a Leader in the Context of Lean Culture?

In the context of lean culture, a leader is not only a positional figure; rather, they are an innovator and a driving force behind ongoing development. Within the framework of lean approaches, a leader exemplifies servant leadership, cultivating a climate that supports responsibility, empowerment, and teamwork. Beyond traditional hierarchical positions, a lean leader creates a feeling of purpose and unites team members around a similar vision.

These leaders emphasize open communication, respect for others, and creating an environment that fosters creativity, problem-solving  and ideas sharing. A lean leader is essentially the engine that propels organizational excellence, directing team members' efforts in the direction of a future that is leaner, more efficient, and open for improvements.

What is the One-Point Lesson?

A One-Point Lesson goes beyond traditional training aids, presenting itself as a succinct but effective tool that can quickly distribute critical knowledge throughout the vast terrain of lean culture.

This one-document resource is a dynamic enabler  that speeds up the transfer of knowledge and makes a substantial contribution to process standardization, improved employee training, and the maintenance of a continuous improvement culture.

This lean tool is a short A4 visual presentation that covers one single point. Normally, they are composed of around 20% text and around 80% photos, illustrations, graphs, or diagrams. They communicate and teach standards, and document problems and their solutions, process improvements, and new standards. As mentioned earlier, they are used to demonstrate non-complex tasks or procedures.

Its many effects make it an indispensable tool for guaranteeing operational effectiveness, promoting efficient knowledge transfer, and maintaining a steadfast dedication to quality inside the flourishing lean culture.

Why is Lean important?

Lean methodology plays a crucial role in helping organizations improve efficiency, reduce waste, enhance quality, and ultimately, deliver greater value to customers. Some key reasons why Lean is important include:

· Increased productivity and profitability

· Improved customer satisfaction and loyalty

· Reduced lead times and cycle times

· Lower operating costs and higher competitiveness

· Empowered and engaged workforce (through simplified daily tasks)

· Sustainable growth and resilience to market changes

· Continuous innovation and process improvement

How to implement Lean Culture?

A methodical approach aimed at changing corporate attitude, procedures, and behaviors to adopt Lean principles is required to implement lean culture. Important actions to adopt a lean culture consist of:

· Leadership commitment and vision alignment

· Employee training and education on Lean principles and tools

· Identifying and prioritizing improvement opportunities

· Establishing cross-functional teams for problem-solving and process improvement

· Implementing Lean tools and methodologies, such as Value Stream Mapping, 5S, and Kaizen events

· Monitoring progress and continuously engaging employees in improvement initiatives

· Celebrating successes and fostering a culture of continuous learning and adaptation

How to sustain Lean Culture?

Sustaining a Lean culture requires ongoing commitment, engagement, and continuous improvement efforts from all levels of the organization. Key strategies to sustain Lean culture include:

· Leadership commitment,support and presence

· Employee involvement and empowerment

· Establishing clear goals and metrics to measure progress

· Creating a culture of accountability and recognition for improvement efforts

· Encouraging open communication and feedback channels

Learn how to implement the methods above with the Lean Results PRO course.

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